CITIES 2017-11-13T17:29:58+00:00

Two localities were selected from within each of the three cities included within the PRUV Project (Bogotá, Jakarta and Nairobi).  The localities selected and the criteria for their selection are detailed in the table below.




Locality Selection Criteria

Nairobi, Kenya

Localities Selected: Kibera and Kawangware

Jakarta, Indonesia

Localities Selected: Lagoa and Rawabadak Utara

Soacha, Colombia

Localities Selected: Altos de la Florida sector 2, 3 and 4, and sector Piedras Blancas and Carboneras

1.       Access.  This criterion ensures that researchers will be able to conduct data collection in the locality concerned.  Access is often facilitated by a good knowledge of the locality and the relevant stakeholders.


Kibera commonly experiences insecurity arising from tribal and election related clashes. For example, in the 2007/8 post-election violence witnessed in Kenya, Kibera was one of the conflict hotspots identified for security operations by the national government.


Kawangware is located about 15 km west of the city centre.   It has seen frequent protests and election-related violence in recent months.



Lagoa and Rawabadak Utara are villages located in Koja District, North Jakarta.  North Jakarta is an area where the percentage of poor households is considered the second highest in Jakarta (5%).


According to data from the Central Bureau of Statistics 2013, Lagoa is an urban village that is included in the top 10 urban villages in Jakarta with high levels of social vulnerability according to 6 indicators: poverty, environment and health, physical infrastructure, social capital, economy and security,


Rawabadak Utara is one of the areas targeted by newcomers from outside Jakarta who live in boarding houses, rented houses and shops. Rawabadak is an area that is prone to flooding because of its proximity to the major river flowing through Jakarta. A campaign for increasing legal awareness in Rawabadak Utara was conducted in 2016.

Altos de la Florida is the general locality chosen due to the previous work that JRS Soacha has been doing since 2015. Also, Pablo Cortés Ferrández, researcher of the project, was working there in 2016. This has facilitated the development of a good knowledge of the locality and the relevant stakeholders, mainly leaders of the community and NGOs in the sector. Also, although the situation concerning delinquency and violence is stable at the moment (June 2017), we have to consider these risks during particular periods of the year, for instance social cleansing or threatening pamphlets from paramilitary groups and criminal organisations.
2.       Population size.  This criterion ensures that localities of an appropriate size are selected.  It is expected that in most cases the localities should have a population in at least the tens of thousands.


Kawangware has a population size of 133,286 people according to the 2009 Census and an average household size of three members.


With a population of about 250,000 (Census 2009), Kibera measures approximately 225 hectares with a resultant density of 2,222 people per hectare.  Approximately 95 percent of households live below the poverty line. The original settlers were the Nubian people from the Kenyan/Sudanese border who now occupy about 15% of Kibera, are mostly Muslim and are also mostly house owners.  The locality is situated on the outskirts of Nairobi.


Lagoa has a population density of 102,2 persons per km2 and is inhabited by 68,925 people, almost equally split between male and female. The area has only 1 primary health clinic, 9 polyclinics, and 5 maternity hospitals.




Rawabadak Utara is inhabited by 41,071 people, a slight majority being male (21,079) and has a population density of 105,44 persons per km2. The area has 2 primary health care clinics, 6 polyclinics and 1 maternity hospital.

Altos de la Florida is composed of 4 sectors (sector 1, 2, 3 and 4). Only 49% of sector 2 is legalized. Soacha mayor’s office and the Government of Cundinamarca consider sectors 1, 2, 3 and 4 as informal but recognise that there are human settlements there.  Piedras Blancas and Carboneras are not even considered human settlements. So we can differentiate between informality (sectors 2, 3 and 4) and absolute informality in Piedras Blancas and Carboneras.

About population size:

– As of 2017 commmunity leaders say that in the sectors they have the following numbers of households:

Sector 1: 350 households

Sector 2: 300 households

Sector 3: 500 households

Sector 4: 337 households

Piedras Blancas and Carboneras: 60 households


– UN reports:

Based on the characterization carried out by UNDP and University Minuto de Dios in 2013, Altos de la Florida has 2,439 inhabitants, grouped in 992 households.


3.       Maturity of locality. It is proposed that two localities are selected, one more mature than the other.  This will facilitate comparison between informal settlements that are longer in existence with more recent settlements and help determine what factors, if any, contribute to urban resilience over time.


Kibera is the largest slum in Africa and one of the largest in the world. Kibera neighbourhood is divided into two parts; the upper area which is the original Nubian settlement of Makina and the lower area that has been densely settled during the last two decades and includes the villages of Lindi, Kisumu Ndogo, Soweto East, Soweto West, Makina, Kianda, Kambi Muru, Mashimoni, Gatwekera, Silanga, Laini Saba and the newly founded Raila Village.


Kawangware is more distant from Nairobi’s city centre and relatively more recently inhabited.





The name of this village according to folklore is taken from the name Lagoa or La Gowa, a hero of the Silat Bugis or Mandar tribe, who once lived this area.


Rawabadak Utara

The name of Rawa Badak is thought to derive from the Sundanese word badag, which means a large swamp. On the eastern side of Jakarta (the old name for the city was Batavia) there used to be a large swamp area.


Rawa Badak Utara is the result of the split from Rawa Badak Village, based on the Decree of the Governor of the Province of Jakarta Capital Special Region Number 1251/1986 on the Splitting of Boundaries, the Change of the Name of the Village (Kelurahan), and the Determination of the Area of Kelurahan in the Special Capital Region of Jakarta. Kelurahan Rawa Badak Utara remains a part of Koja Sub-district, North Jakarta Municipality, as Rawa Badak Village was previously.

Altos de la Florida is an informal settlement in comuna VI in the municipality of Soacha.  The settlement of the area began in the late 1980s and early 1990s, mainly because of the forced displacement of the population from rural to urban areas due to the Colombian armed conflict and also because of economic migration due to the high cost of living in nearby Bogotá.

In this sense, sectors 2, 3 and 4 are considered informal by the authorities although they consider them human settlements since two evictions were halted in Altos de la Florida between 2009 and 2010. Therefore, these sectors have a Junta de Acción Comunal (JAC) (Communal Action Board), the legal representation of a community in the country. However, the sector of Piedras Blancas and Carboneras, which could be considered as sector 5, does not have a JAC and is not even considered a human settlement by the authorities. This sector was the last to be created and families continue to arrive.